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Summa Theory

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David Birnbaum / Summa Metaphysica


Summa Metaphysica proposes
an original and elegant metaphysics

The main Summa Metaphysicasite is:


Summa goes for the crux of the matter: It endeavors to discern the fount and engine of the cosmic order.

The author's conclusion is simple yet complex: Quest for Potential

Summa Metaphysica discerns this one unifying concept. The author proposes that this one dynamic – is eternal, transcending, and overarching.

The author makes-the-case that it is self-evident that the only dynamic which can be asserted with full conviction as being truly eternal is Potential/Possibility. By definition.

The religious finesse would be that Holy Quest for Potential is eternal.

On Summa's ambitious to-do list is the quasi-unification – via the universal common core axis of Potential – of Science, Religion and Philosophy.

As we are aware, however, establishments do not readily yield to paradigm shifts – without a battle.

New Paradigm Matrix™

Q4P                 Quest for Potential Theory





with a focus on Summa Metaphysicaby David Birnbaum

April 16-19, 2012 Annandale-on-Hudson, NY

Dr. Bruce Chilton, Conference Chairman
Chairman, Theology Department   

Dr. Garry Hagberg, Conference co-Chairman
Chairman, Philosophy Department

Q4P                 Quest for Potential Theory
David Birnbaum / Summa Metaphysica

Please note that Summa Metaphysica I has been officially listed and assigned as a Course Text at well over a dozen universities globally, ranging from UCLA to Brandeis University to Hebrew University in Jerusalem. The “roster” increases yearly.
( see )

Note that David Birnbaum is the Editor-in-Chief of New Paradigm Matrix
( see )
a multi-media platform for 150+ global thought leaders.

The ten volume Mesorah Matrix series
( see )
is currently underway.

There are well-over 50,000 Summa Metaphysica volumes in circulation globally.

Metaphysics / Philosophy / Theology / Cosmology

We draw your attention to the following “verdict” 24 years-ago on Summa I from the iconic Dupré, noted authority on – and arbiter of – proposed “new paradigm metaphysics” offerings –

     “an original and in this reader’s opinion, very promising point of view….the author gathers a philosophically coherent and, in the end, highly modern insight…He appropriately describes it as a unified metaphysics within the constraints of Jewish doctrine, consistent with its historical development, and consistent with secular scientific thought…” – Louis Dupré, Professor of Religious Studies, Yale University (1989)* * original letter copy is posted on the site under icon Review Letters.

New Paradigm Matrix™

Q4P                 Quest for Potential Theory


Potentialism Theory Cosmic Womb of Potential
Summa Metaphysica 1, Religious Man
God and Evil

New Paradigm Matrix TM

NOV 1988

Potentialism Theory Cosmic Womb of Potential
Summa Metaphysica 2, Spiritual Man
God and Good

New Paradigm Matrix TM

MAR 2005
Potentialism Theory
see feature article reprints section
Cosmic Womb of Potential
Summa Metaphysica 3, Secular Man
The Transcendent Dynamic

New Paradigm Matrix TM

JAN 2014



“A Major Work in the Philosophy of Religion”*

“ ... there is no comparable volume offering such a comprehensive, authoritative and intelligible discussion of the problem… a remarkable effort to offer a fresh approach. ” Paul Mendez-Flohr, Professor of Philosophy, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Editor, Contemporary Jewish Religious Thought
“ …an original, and, in this reader’s opinion, a very promising point of view… the author gathers a philosophically coherent and, in the end, highly modern insight… a unified metaphysics… ” Louis Dupré, Professor of Religious Studies, Yale University
“ …a major work in the Philosophy of Religion…a masterful achievement…a novel and satisfying approach… a major intellectual achievement. ” *Cannon William Johnson, Professor of Philosophy, Brandeis University
“ …a major contribution to the Jewish conversations through the ages, on theodicy, and the problem of evil generally. ” Dr. Norman Lamm, President, Yeshiva University
“David Birnbaum brings the rich resources of the Jewish tradition to bear on the universal problem of theodicy. The result is a new synthesis… I can certainly recommend it as a fascinating contribution to the philosophy of religion which merits the attention of Christians and Jews alike. ” John J. Collins, Professor of Theology, University of Notre Dame Editor, Journal of Biblical Literature
“ God and Evil represents a bold attempt to formulate an ingenious theory, which, drawing upon creative reinterpretations of classical Jewish doctrine, places the Free Will Defense within a broader metaphysical framework… ” Rabbi Walter S. Wurzburger, Professor of Philosophy, Yeshiva University, Editor, Tradition
“ All who read this book will find much instruction, insight, and material for reflection…I find the overall thesis of the book touching and inspiring… ” Rabbi Irving Greenberg, President, The National Jewish Center for Learning and Scholarship (CLAL)
“ A major work…a great intellectual and spiritual effort ” Joseph Dan, Professor of Kabbalah, Hebrew University
“…a major intellectual triumph and potential conceptual breakthrough - Professor Emeritus John Wheeler, Princeton

from the Foreword by KHALIL

     “…Birnbaum feels no compulsion to obey the rules that his intellectual predecessors followed. Building on the foundation of ancient Jewish principles, Particularly Kabbalistic ones, he is not afraid to draw on Eastern principles of temporal circularity, concepts from biology and physics that have yet to be applied to metaphysical issues, or insights from other scientific and humanistic disciplines that have been left untapped in philosophy.

          Asserting that previous attempts to characterize the essence of the cosmos have fallen short for heir lack of an adequate conceptual arsenal, as exemplified by Maimonides` and Aristotle`s impasse, he consolidates these eclectic influences into a defined set of metaphysical `tools`. Birnbaum present these tools at the outset of god and good. He then uses them to build a model that is applicable to all the arenas from which its influences were initially derived.

          The implications of Birnbaum`s original – markedly straightforward – doctrine therefore, range from the most general to the most specific. The doctrine is unified by the central thesis that unbounded potentiality pulls both the individual and the cosmos towards a Divine Ideal. Potential is universal.Potential is the nexus…”



Summa Metaphysica series God and Evil (1988) God and Good (2005) The Transcendent Dynamic (2014)
  • AIHS Heritage Journal New York
  • NahumN.GIal/cr Boston University
  • Dr. Sanford Drob Founder. NY Jewish Review
  • Professor William Johnson Brandcu University
  • Rabbi Benjamin В lech Ycshiva University
  • Professor Masako Nakagawa Villanovu University
Q4P > C+ > E+ - POTENTIALISM THEORY (encapsulated) / see

“Birnbaum’s Theory of Potential offers a unified, grand and dynamic cosmic construct.”
     – The Huffington Post, United Kingdom, January / 31 / 2014

“Spinoza and Birnbaum are paradigm-breaking philosophers who have shaped the study of philosophy. Both their works can be found in university classrooms across the country and the world.”
     – CNN iReport, April / 9 / 2014

“The 21st century has seen a rise in new theories of cosmology. At the forefront has been Potentialism. The theory was developed by independent scholar David Birnbaum of Manhattan [via] his 3-volume treatise Summa Metaphysica. The theory is an iconic paradigm challenge.”
     – The Epoch Times, June / 4 / 2014

“David Birnbaum, metaphysicist and private scholar, set out on an audacious odyssey [culminationg] in 1988 and 2005 to redefine modern cosmology as we know it. What he gave the world was a metaphysics for the 21st century.”
     – Future Technology (Virginia Tech), April / 21 / 2014

“…Summa represents a bold attempt to formulate a unifying concept of the Universe…it is reasonable to propose the Quest for Potential∞ as a working hypothesis for explaining the impetus behind the cosmic dynamic.”
     – Dr. Andrei Alyokhin, Maine, November, 2012
        Professor and Graduate Coordinator, School of Biology and Ecology
        University of Maine

“Each thought leader [Birnbaum of Manhattan(1988, 2005) and Lloyd of MIT(2006)] individually proposes a ground breaking solution. Both of their respective solutions are original, but are nevertheless eerily inter-related and parallel.”
     – Frontiers, Dec 21 / 2013

“We hope to explain the entire universe in a simple formula you can put on your T-shirt.”
      – Leon Lederman, Texas, 1983
         American experimental physicist
         Nobel Prize in Physics

( or see )

Summa Metaphysica series Summa I - Religious Man: God and Evil (1988) Summa II - Spiritual Man: God and Good (2005) Summa III - Secular Man: The Transcendent Dynamic (2014)

from the desk of Hugo van den Berg

University of Warwick Department of Mathematics Coventry, United Kingdom

Mar 28, 2013

On Birnbaum's Formula

Physics, unlike metaphysics perhaps, is concerned only with description. However, not all descriptions are created equal; it is sometimes possible to capture large swathes of phenomena with a minimum of formal apparatus. Such superb descriptions are what scientists like to think of as “good theories” (all is, in the final analysis, still mere description, a point that is sometimes lost). The game naturally becomes this: to capture as much as possible with as little as possible.

In Birnbaum’s unparalleled and magisterial Summa Metaphysica, we find a pithy quote attributed to a Nobel prize winner [physicist Lederman] who expresses this dream as capturing the universe in a formula that one could print on a T-shirt. Birnbaum, in a staggering and audacious move, displays a formula below this quote.

Are we to infer that this is the answer to the dream of the physicist recently quoted? The recondite renaissance man Birnbaum does not tell us, at least not directly, not on this page. The formula just stands there, glorious in its splendid isolation. It reads:


Perusal of Summa Metaphysica, two imposing tomes of recondite philosophical-mathematical-poetic musings, indicates that Birnbaum wants the reader to think of Q4P as a single symbol......

[ balance of essay upon request ]


Q4P ( Q4P ( Q4P (

Quest for Potential ( Quest for Potential ( Quest for Potential
ad infinitum



meaning, Quest for Potential ( infinitely recursive

Q4P ( Q4P ( Q4P …

meaning Quest for Potential within Potential within Potential.........

Birnbaum's Quest for Potential hypothesis:

An Overarching Simultaneous Solution?

What is the value of an elegant/concise/original/grasp-able concept/dynamic - expressable in a simple formula: Q4P - which simultaneously seems to be a key missing 'building block'' towards a solution of the salient major classic and contemporary macro-challenges in -

philosophy & metaphysics & physics & theology

including, amongst others:
  • theogony
  • cosmology / cosmogony
  • theodicy
  • purpose question
  • teleology
  • *
  • philosophy of science
  • Goldilocks Enigma
  • a unified scientific theory
  • *

What is the value of the Summa hypothesis if it has withstood 25+ years of international academic scrutiny - with no flaw or vulnerability found ?

  • Summa Metaphysica


“ David Birnbaum’s Summa Metaphysica is a major philosophical contribution to the study of Being. According to Summa, Holy Potential is at the very epicenter of the Divine, and the quest for its fulfillment is the underlying core dynamic of the cosmic order.

Birnbaum considers Quest for Potential to be ubiquitous and overarching holy cosmic dynamic. All of the countless components of the Universe, including humans, are striving towards the full realization of their particular potentialities.

Although centered on the problem of evil existing in the world created by benevolent and omnipotent God, Summa reaches far beyond theodicy. Deeply rooted in Biblical tradition, yet providing a modern and original approach to answering millennia-old questions, Summa represents a bold attempt to formulate a unifying concept of the Universe.”



The very basic laws of ecology describing the growth and regulation of populations of living organisms appear to fit the metaphysical model of the cosmic Quest for Potential proposed by David Birnbaum. Obviously, ecology is only one of many sub disciplines within the rather broad science of biology, and biology is only one of many natural sciences (albeit a very important one). Therefore, this observation alone does not serve as an immediate and decisive proof that the Quest is indeed the major driving force behind each and every natural process.

Nevertheless, it is truly fascinating that an established scientific theory based on experimental evidence and mathematic models is in such a strong agreement with a philosophical theory of Conceptual Theorist Birnbaum, and developed independently of any formal natural history research. This is unlikely to happen by chance alone.

Therefore, it is reasonable to propose the Quest for Potential as a working hypothesis for explaining the impetus behind the cosmic dynamic.

Testing this hypothesis would involve a critical review of other scientific theories explaining particular phenomena in chemistry, physics, sociology, etc. for their agreement with Birnbaum’s proposed Overarching Theory.

Ultimately, this may yield a unified view of the Universe, which would be a major leap in fulfilling our potentiality as conscious beings.

– Dr. Andrei Alyokhin Professor and Graduate Coordinator School of Biology and Ecology University of Maine Orono, ME November 2, 2012
Q4P = Survival ( Potential array ( Extraordinariation
from major reviews on Summa I POTENTIALISM THEORY
“Birnbaum’s God and Evil is an extremely significant volume which grapples forthrightly and originally with the problem… well-organized… clearly written… persuasive…. Birnbaum comes as close as possible to solving the awesome dilemma of evil in a world created by a just God.”” – JEWISH WORLD
“Birnbaum wrestles with the problem of evil from a Jewish perspective, but provides fresh insights for Christians as well. This is a good book, written in faith, and with honesty and passion.” – THEOLOGICAL STUDIESGeorgetown University
“Wiesel and Birnbaum share a deep respect for, and loyalty to, their ancestral faith. Yet the contrast between their approaches is ultimately perhaps as instructive as the approaches themselves. Birnbaum’s approach is essentially that of the intellectual, philosopher, and theologian…” – CANADIAN CATHOLIC REVIEW
“a bold and highly original synthesis…audacious yet sensitive, traditional and yet highly innovative…yet within the parameters of an authentically Jewish halakhic point of view…an intellectual odyssey.” – JEWISH REVIEW
Q4P                 Quest for Potential Theory
David Birnbaum / Summa Metaphysica

For Quick Overview: (5-pages)

Science / Math / Physics / Astrophysics

for extra science focus, see:


to email David Birnbaum’s editorial associate:

to email the author directly:


Academic Master Site:

The Bard April 2012 METAPHYSICS conference site:

see for range of tapes

for David Birnbaum academic bio see:

for David’s philosophy blog go to:

for Birnbaum global master site see:

New Paradigm Matrix™


1:1 Resonance ?

Parallel to Summa, albeit highly mechanistic

excerpts from



Seth Lloyd

Published by Alfred A. Knopf ©2006
“The history of the universe is, in effect, a huge and ongoing quantum computation. The universe is a quantum computer.
      This begs the question: What does the universe compute? It computes itself. The universe computes its own behavior. As soon as the universe began, it began computing. At first, the patterns it produced were simple, comprising elementary particles and establishing the fundamental laws of physics. In time, as it processed more and more information, the universe spun out ever more intricate and complex patterns, including galaxies, stars, and planets. Life, language, human beings, society, culture—all owe their existence to the intrinsic ability of matter and energy to process information. The computational capability of the universe explains one of the great mysteries of nature: how complex systems such as living creatures can arise from fundamentally simple physical laws…. (p. 3)
     The digital revolution under way today is merely the latest in a long line of information-processing revolutions stretching back through the development of language, the evolution of sex, and the creation of life, to the beginning of the universe itself. Each revolution has laid the ground-work for the next….” (p. 5) ”
Lloyd directs the Center for Extreme Quantum Information Theory (xQIT) at MIT.

Metaphysical/Holistic Birnbaum’s Quest for Potential (Q4P)
has 1:1 resonance with
neo-Mechanstic Lloyd's ‘universe computer’

Conceptually, one schema reinforces the other -
as both ‘unities’ are all-embracing, all-universe, all-encompassing, ongoing-iterating,
and inexorably-advancing.

Q4P                 Quest for Potential Theory
Quest for Potential ( Potential ( Potential ( Potential ( Potential (

The Cosmic Spinal Column
of Potential

  • Q4P Eternal
  • Q4P yields Physics et al.
  • Q4P embracing/adhering-to all
  • Q4P as catalyst for Life
  • Q4P as the spinal column of myriad Life
  • Q4P driving Evolution forward
  • Q4P as the central nervous system of Consciousness
  • Q4P gives Purpose
  • Q4P driving the universe forward
  • Q4P as teleology. The goal: Potential/ Extraordinariation

Paradigm Shift Possible ?

on Cosmology

excerpts from

Paul Davies*

“A deeper level of explanation” ?

“I belong to the group of scientists who do not subscribe to a conventional religion but nevertheless deny that the universe is purposeless accident. Through my scientific work I have come to believe more and more strongly that the physical universe is put together with an ingenuity so astonishing that I cannot accept it merely as a brute fact. There must, it seems to me, be a deeper level of explanation ”... – from The Mind of God, p. 16
Simon & Schuster, © 1992
“…Somehow the universe has engineered, not just its own awareness, but also its own comprehension. Mindless, blundering atoms have conspired to make not just life, not just mind, but understanding…. Could it just be a fluke? Might the fact that the deepest level of reality has connected to a quirky natural phenomenon we call ‘the human mind’ represent nothing but a bizarre and temporary aberration in an absurd and pointless universe? Or is there an even deeper subplot at work? ” ... “In some manner…life, mind, and physical law are part of a common scheme, mutually supporting. Somehow, the universe has engineered its own self-awareness.”... – from The Goldilocks Enigma, pp. 5 and 231
Little, First Mariner Books, © 2008

*Paul Davies has been a recipient of the following awards/prizes: 1995 Templeton Prize (US); Advance Australia Award and two Eureka Prizes (Australia); 2001 Kelvin Medal and Prize by the Institute of Physics, and the 2002 Faraday Prize by The Royal Society (UK)

Q4P                 Quest for Potential Theory

  Quantum Representation of
“Physical” Q4P - pegging-off of MIT’s Llloyd*

the key contemporary
scientific hypothesis bridge to Summa

**from a secular / scientific / mechanistic perspective -
“All interactions between particles in the universe...convey not only energy but also information in other words, particles not only collide, they compute. What is the entire universe computing, ultimately? Its own dynamical evolution... As the computation proceeds, reality unfolds.” -from the back-cover of Programming the Universe By Seth Lloyd, Professor, Mechanical Engineering, MIT (c) 2006, First Vintage Books Edition (NY)

Lloyd’s hypothesis provides key 1:1 buttress to Summa.

Indeed, “Q4P is hiding in plain sight,” - both conceptually and literally - as we have hypothesized since 1988 via Summa Metaphysica I (hardcover), and then via Summa Metaphysica II (2005)

Birnbaum’s Q4P
resonates as a fuller multi-dimensional wrap-around conceptualization re: Lloyd’s universe as a programming entity

*MIT scientist Seth Lloyd directs the Center for Extreme Quantum Information Theory at MIT, where he is also a professor of Mechanical Engineering.

**excerpt, not a testimonial


Closing Argument ?

Argument by Thomas Nagel
NYU University Professor
in the Department of Philosophy and Law

in his very recent MIND & COSMOS
Oxford University Press (c) 2012

Professor Thomas Nagel argues passionately and articulately (see chapters 1 and 2) that -

(a) we must search for an objectively palatable transcending view/schema of the cosmic order, and that

(b) the 'essential character' of such an understanding would be to explain the origins and existence of -
  • - life
  • - consciousness
  • - reason
  • - knowledge
  • - altruism

without resort to theism - from without
but rather as a direct logical consequence of the overarching order
that governs the natural world - from within

Nagel argues that the origin and evolution of life and mind/consciousness simply is not - and will not be - explainable by physics and chemistry alone.

"An expanded, but still unified, form of explanation will be needed, and I suspect it will have to include teleological [goal-of-the-universe] elements". (p. 33)

Nagel articulates (chapter 3) that 'the desire for a unified world picture is irrepressible'.

New Paradigm Matrix respectfully offers Summa Metaphysica's Quest for Potential Theory.

Q4P                 Quest for Potential Theory

In summary, to be considered:

Summa presents an Overarching Metaphysics: a unifying concept of the universe.

Summa Theory pegs-off of one single unique concept/dynamic -
Quest for Potential
to craft a unified/elegant/original/powerful/consistent metaphysics.

This concept is by definition Eternal. That is self-evident in this case.

Q4P captures the entire cosmic dynamic in one
concise/elegant/efficient/comprehensible formula.

Meaning, the concept - Q4P - is simultaneously the formula.

No flaw - or weakness - has been discerned in the Theory. [The core theory was presented/published in November 1988 via Summa I ( KTAV Publishing). The core theory has not morphed.]

Summa Theory ‘handles’ the key Metaphysics questions, and potentially elegantly fills-in key gaps in science.

Respectfully, Summa Theory has no competition. Meaning, there is no Option #B on-the-table from any quarter.

Q4P is ‘infinite’, ‘nested’, and indeed, uniquely ‘infinitely nested’.

Summa - via Q4P - uniquely provides not only a key to the cosmic code, but an elegant interface between Science & Religion & Philosophy. [Note that in the current milieu, where within the entrenched highly-politicized establishment dogma decay, randomness, chance-design and militant atheism reign supreme, Summa will no doubt be found guilty of High Treason.]

Summa Theory actually ‘reasonably’ handles origin/nurturing/development of - the universe, life, consciousness

Summa works across-the-board: Its cosmology dovetails elegantly with its theogony, theodicy, purpose-question and teleology.

The odds are respectable that Summa Theory is conceptually on-the-mark.

Q4P                 Quest for Potential Theory

Note to reader: Over the course of its two volumes,
Summa Metaphysica handles almost all issues on multiple-levels
– ranging from a stripped-down thoroughly “secular level”
through a richer, more textured and nuanced "religious/spiritual level."

At the request of an array of “interested parties” –
ranging from young students through teachers to journalists to scientists –
the encapsulation below outlines a lean version presentation.


The “Cosmic Womb of Potential” -
An encapsulation of the Summa metaphysics

In the void of voids,
there was only Potential/Possibility

- an eternal dynamic

Morphing-into and coursing-through the metaphysical
Cosmic Womb of Potential

Its goals…
A panoply of Potential

The equations of mathematics and physics would come early-on

In turn, the broader array of equations would radiate outwards.

In turn, seeking/yearning-for -
Expression, Reality, Feeling, Emotion
Life Hope Dreams Consciousness Love Drama et al.

The “0”- Point Portal.

But, first a universe was needed...

And only ‘0’ existed as a possible bridge to reality… But, that would suffice.

The equations – driven by Infinite Divine Potential -
would conspire/collaborate

to split ‘0’
- and unleash its possibly infinite Potential

So, a few billion years before Einstein et al. would split the atom
and unleash the atom bomb...

the equations would collaborate to split ‘0’
- the potential Cosmic PORTAL

Metaphysical > Physical

and unleash the universe...


The frequencies and the dials were very exquisitely calibrated - to the now-iconic very-finely-tuned “Goldilocks Constants”

( for our, indeed, Fine-Tuned Universe )

The Countdown... The Launch

The Genesis Point

aka The (very) Big Bang.

Splitting ‘0’ into
Positives and Negatives
Female and Male
Good and Evil
Positive & Negative energy
Regular & Dark matter

Potential would reign supreme.

To the spiritual, this Potential is the Metaphysical God of Potential:
Eheyeh Asher Eheyeh:
I Will Be That Which I Will Be (Book of Exodus 3:14)
The Infinite Divine. Shadai. The Source. Holy Quest for Potential
The kabbalistic En Sof (‘The No-End’)

See also Anima mundi - the ‘world soul’ - in Plato (Timaeus 29/30) et al.

Secular or Holy
the grand cosmic journey / exploration / odyssey
advances-onward to this day

With Freedom - integral to Potential - being axiomatically inviolate.
(Leaving evil un-checked.)
And Potential leading and integrating the cosmic advance

  • Daring
  • Optimizing
  • Advancing
  • Iterating
  • Harmonizing
  • Over-arching

Impacting all / All-embracing.


With neo-Darwinism on the micro-level, but Potential-Design handling the macro-level.

Quest for Potential ( Q4P)

Quest for Potential ( Potential ( Potential ad infinitum

Invisible, yet simultaneously in full-view Hiding in plain sight / Beneath-the-radar Smooth Operator And we are all integral-to this mysterious Quest For Potential Itself an integrated Infinitely nested Unity – encompassing all

…. On a journey towards Extraordinariation

Advancing-through the sundry storms….

  • Life. Death
  • Birth. Genocide
  • Glory. Humiliation
  • Mercy. Sadism
  • Pinnacle. Tears
  • Dreams. Defeat
  • Respect. Defamation
  • Loyalty. Betrayal
  • Gentleness. Abuse
  • Hope. Pain
  • Re-birth. Destruction
  • Venerated. Terrorized
  • Breakthrough. Heartbreak
  • Unconquered. Defiled
  • Triumph. Despair

Quest for Potential - on an eternal cosmic explorer expedition

probing and searching for (elusive) ultimate -

meaning….destiny…fulfillment….consciousness….harmony… beauty… grandeur…. elegance…. artistry… love…. spirituality... perfection…. humanitarianism…. altruism

...the elusive Extraordinariation

- a goal to be approached – like Infinity – even inexorably and indefatigably - but alas, destined to never quite be fully realized……..


- Birnbaum

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Is this “law” a problem for our Theory of Potential?


The Second Law of Thermodynamics can only be applied beyond closed systems if it properly accounts for (all) outside influences. This “accounting for” is currently not readily do-able on a universe-basis or on an even grander infinite metaphysical / physical universe basis. The inter-related dynamics of Quest for Potential, Life, and Evolution all "bump into" the Second “Law” only if the Second Law is simplistically and/or mechanistically deployed beyond closed systems.

for a stripped-down version of Summa theory,  see

see complete philosophy extracts:

To my mind, there must be at the bottom of it all, not an utterly simple equation, but an utterly simple IDEA. And to me that idea, when we finally discover it, will be so compelling, and so inevitable, so beautiful, we will all say to each other, ‘How could it have ever been otherwise?z Professor John Wheeler, former Chair of the
Physics Department at the University of Texas at Austin,
(from the PBS science documentary,
“The Creation of The Universe” 2004)

re: Cosmology
The proposed Summa SuperLaw equation is:

Q4P   >  C+   >  E+

see the following links: